The Brain Trauma Foundation estimates that as many as 2.5 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) yearly. However, TBIs can be diverse, both in terms of how they are caused and how severe their impact will be. Some individuals can recover quickly from their TBI, while others may suffer lifelong complications.

When it comes to brain injuries, there are four major types, along with three different levels of severity. 

The 4 Types of Brain Injuries

All brain injuries involve some trauma inflicted on the brain. How this trauma is inflicted can vary and is one way by which TBIs are distinguished from one another. There are four main types of TBIs:

1. Concussion

A concussion is generally mild and one of the most common types of TBI. Concussions result from some blow to the head. Children playing contact sports like football may sustain a concussion after a play or being hit in the head by a ball. You might also suffer a concussion if you are hit on the head while at work or in a slip and fall accident.

2. Piercing Injuries

Sometimes referred to as an open head injury, a piercing TBI involves some foreign object that has cracked or pierced the skull and exposed the brain to injury. There is often bleeding with this type of TBI, leading to brain swelling, clotting, and the risk of stroke. Having a nail or knife pierce your skull is an example of a piercing injury.

3. Diffuse Axonal Injuries And Contusions

Diffuse axonal injuries and contusions are a type of TBI that can occur in a car accident when your head and neck whip violently back and forth due to the sudden deceleration of your car. This “whiplash” motion causes your brain to shift inside the skull, which can bruise the brain as it strikes the interior of the skull. 

The motion can also tear connecting fibers from the brain, resulting in severe consequences.

4. Anoxic Brain Injuries

Anoxic brain injuries happen when the brain is deprived of oxygen. Drowning is a common example of an anoxic brain injury, although certain medicines or medical conditions can also cause an anoxic TBI. Brain cells can die without oxygen, and permanent damage can result after just a few minutes.

The 3 Severity Levels of TBIs

No matter the type of TBI, medical professionals will classify a TBI based on its severity as well as its type. There are three severity levels that can be used to describe TBIs, including:

1. Mild

Mild TBIs are unlikely to result in any long-term consequences or impairment.

2. Moderate

Moderate TBIs can result in unconsciousness for 30 minutes to 24 hours and carry the potential for some long-term impairment that requires ongoing treatment to manage.

3. Severe

Severe TBIs often result in unconsciousness for more than 24 hours, with possible persistent memory loss and loss of functioning that cannot be recovered.

What To Do After Suffering a Brain Injury in Maryland

TBIs that begin as mild or moderate can progress to more severe TBIs if prompt medical care is not obtained. For this reason, it is always a good idea to seek medical attention anytime you believe you have suffered a head injury.

Even mild or moderate TBIs can result in impairments and symptoms that are painful and difficult to manage. However, knowing the type and severity of your brain injury can help you better understand how your head was injured and how it may impact you going forward.

Additionally, if you sustained your brain injury in an accident caused by someone else’s negligence in Maryland, you may be eligible to pursue compensation for your losses. An experienced Baltimore brain injury lawyer can determine your best legal options.


For more information contact the Baltimore brain injury law firm of WGK Personal Injury Lawyers to schedule a free initial consultation.

WGK Personal Injury Lawyers
14 W Madison St, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States
(410) 837-2144

WGK Personal Injury Lawyers – Dundalk Office
7329 Holabird Ave Suite 3, Dundalk, MD 21222
(410) 970-3080